Vocabulary

Biopsy – collection of cells for testing from an organ or tissue. Embryo biopsy - collection of embryonic cells for testing. Usually cells for testing are taken from trophectoderm – future placenta. It is called trophectoderm biopsy.

 

Blastocyst – an embryo stadium on day 5. Due to natural selection in average every third normally fertilized egg develops up to blastocyst stadium. Not all embryos of good morphology on day 3 will develop to embryos of good morphology on day 5. Some of them will stop between day 3 and day 5. This is again the way natural selection works.

Embryo’s morphology  — non-invasive optical evaluation of embryo’s looks under microscope

Under “good quality embryo” = “embryo of good morphology” we understand that the embryo’s looks under microscope correlates with a good chance to attach (based on follow up after many hundreds thousands of embryo transfers). Still good morphology does not guarantee that the embryo is genetically normal. In the age of 30 1 in 4 good in morphology blastocysts is abnormal, in the age of 41 3 in 4 good morphology blastocysts are abnormal. [Ata, Munne al 2012 – 875 cycles, 4600 embryos]

Chromosome aneuploidy – abnormal chromosome number. Normally humans have 46 chromosomes or 23 chromosome pairs: 22 pairs of similar non-gender chromosomes and 1 pair presented by two X chromosomes  in females and by X an Y chromosomes in males

Euploid embryo – embryo with correct (normal) chromosome number. In human all somatic cells contain 23 chromosome pairs. 22 pairs are presented by non-gender chromosomes. The 23rd pair is presented by two X chromosomes in female and by chromosomes X and Y in males. Each of two chromosomes in each pair is received from an egg and a sperm, hence from a mother and a father. Not all embryos good in morphology are euploid.

Aneuploid embryo – an embryo with abnormal chromosome number. 90% of aneuploid embryos stop development very early and do not implant. Only 10 % of them can implant and result either in Biochemical pregnancy or in miscarriage under 12 weeks, or very seldom in life birth with Down syndrome. Some embryos of good morphology are aneuploid. Aneuploidy rate depends on the age of the egg. 1 in 4 morphologically good blastocysts is abnormal in the age of 30, 3 in 4 morphologically good blastocysts are abnormal in the age of 41.

PGS – preimplantation genetic screening

Single elective embryo transfer (SET) – transfer of only one embryo to the uterus, usually on day 5, selected on the basis of good morphology. Embryo chosen for SET has the best morphology and hence a potency to implant in comparison to the rest of the embryos produced from one egg collection. Still a good morphologically good embryo can be aneuploid with the risk of 20-30% in the age around  30 and risk of 70-80% in the age around 40. Additional screening of morphologically good embryos for 23 chromosome pairs helps not to use aneuploidy embryos and hence increases the efficiency of SET in all patients groups.

Biochemical pregnancy – pregnancy which has progressed to positive HCG test but not further

Clinical pregnancy – pregnancy confirmed by ultrasound

Implantation rates – amount of fetal sacs in the uterus per amount of transferred embryos

Implantation failure – no pregnancy after embryo transfer

Recurrent implantation failure – 3 or more fresh ETs without result

“…Well the Millennium shift came, the year 2000, we all remember what we did then, right? I got cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma... And when I stand here now 17 years later, you understand that it went well! Except for one important thing…"

Hillevi

After 3 IVF in Sweden, 3 miscarriages, Elisabet and Pär became parents of lovely Ester through egg donation in St. Petersburg

“…When I left the clinic and walked down the Nevsky Prospect I knew I was pregnant — and the feeling was right! 9 month after her visit at the AVA Clinic Alexander was born!”

Ewa and Sten


Having questions? Ask our doctors now!

A blog by Tone Bråten

A blog — to help you on your journey to become parents!

Our patients tell their stories



  • Willeke and Mario from Netherlands come to AVA-Peter for egg donation treatment… Enjoy this touching and sincere documentary by Jorien van Nes
       
    Mum through embryo donation
    Marie Granmar is my very dear patient from more than 8 years ago. Please listen to Marie’s interview on TV4 7 March 2019 in Sweden
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    "I became pregnant with an embryo adoption”
    One more story about our dear patient Cilla Holm by Tara Magazine, Sweden
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    Titiyo became this year's Comeback Mum: "I've broken the norm"
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    Monika and André pay 240,000 SEK for having a child
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    "Had to travel abroad to get pregnant after 8 IVF attempts in Norway"
    Interview with our patient Elin Renate by TV2 Norway
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    Report on us on Norwegian Television TV 2
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    Enjoy our dear patient Cilla's story, who has been interviewed by the "Dagens Nyheter", daily newspaper in Sweden
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    Report on us and our dear patient Hillevi on SVTPlay & SVTNews
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