Male reproductive system

The male reproductive system is regualted by hormones. The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Both of them regulate testis function. The principle regulator of LH and FSH secretion is gonadotropin-releasing hormone or GnRH. FSH regulates production and maturation of sperm cells. LH stimulates production of the main male hormone - testosterone.

Fig. 1. Male reproductive system.

  1. Urinary bladder
  2. Ductus deferens
  3. Penis
  4. Testis
  5. Epididymis
  6. Urethra
  7. Prostate Gland
  8. Ejaculatory duct
  9. Rectum


Every day millions of spermatozoa are generated by the seminiferous tubules of the testes. From testicles, spermatozoa move to epididymis where further maturation takes place (Fig. 1).


During the ejaculation process, the spermatozoa move outside through the ductus deferens and urethra thanks to the muscles contraction. Each portion of sperm contains 300-400 millions of spermatozoa. Such a large quantity is explained by the fact that only a few hundred spermatozoa successfully reach fallopian tubes where the oocyte can be fertilized.

Male reproductive system - Sex Determination

Fig.2. Sex Determination.

The spermatozoon consists of head, neck and tail. The head carries the genetic material from the father. If fertilization is successful, this material determines sex of child (Fig. 2).

The neck provides energy for spermatozoon movement.

Male reproductive system - Spermatozoon’s structure

Fig. 3. Spermatozoon’s structure.

The spermatozoon’s tail is a "motor". It whips from side to side ensuring the spermatozoon movement (Fig. 3).

Having questions? Ask our doctors now!

A blog by Tone Bråten

A blog — to help you on your journey to become parents!

Our patients tell their stories

    Podcast about embryonic and maternal reasons of pregnancy losses and how we solve this
    Listen to the Podcast!
    The Egg Solution
    Aftenposten, 27 September 2019, Norway. Miriam Lund Knapstad, Helle Aarnes
    Olga is the miracle doctor who gives baby guarantee, Sweden. 6 August 2019. Text & Malin Aunsbjerg
    Cilla Holm became a mother on her own – this is her new Liv (life)
    Dagens Nyheter, Sweden. 7 May 2019
    Russian baby guarantee is the Swedes’ last chance
    Svenska Dagbladet, Sweden. 7 April 2019
    Mum through embryo donation
    Marie Granmar is my very dear patient from more than 8 years ago. Please listen to Marie’s interview on TV4 7 March 2019 in Sweden
    "I became pregnant with an embryo adoption”
    One more story about our dear patient Cilla Holm by Tara Magazine, Sweden
    Titiyo became this year's Comeback Mum: "I've broken the norm"
    Monika and André pay 240,000 SEK for having a child
    "Had to travel abroad to get pregnant after 8 IVF attempts in Norway"
    Interview with our patient Elin Renate by TV2 Norway
    Report on us on Norwegian Television TV 2
    Enjoy our dear patient Cilla's story, who has been interviewed by the "Dagens Nyheter", daily newspaper in Sweden
    Report on us and our dear patient Hillevi on SVTPlay & SVTNews