Aberration in chromosomes

1) common term for all the mutation types - deletions, translocations, inversions, duplications; 2) genome mutations - aneuploidies, trisomies



The absence of the menstruation in a woman of reproductive age. Primary amenorrhoea – the initial absence of the menstruation; secondary amenorrhoea – the absence of the menstruation at least for the last six month.



A male sex hormones.



A change in the number of chromosomes, where abnormal numbers of specific chromosomes or chromosome sets exist within the nucleus.


Antenatal (prenatal)

Occurring, existing, or performed before birth, during pregnancy.


Artificial insemination (AI)

Placing sperm into the vagina or uterus. Nowadays, intrauterine insemination is only used.


Assisted hatching

The opening of the embryo’s covering using, for example, a laser aimed at facilitating implantation of the embryo.



Reduced sperm motility.



A non-sex chromosome. In humans, there are 22 pairs of autosomes.



The medical condition of a man not having any spermatozoa in his semen. Azoospermia has two forms: abstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia.





Chromosomal aberration

1) General name of any mutation – deletions, translocations, inversions, duplications. 2) Genomic mutations (aneuploidies, trisomies, etc.).



A threadlike structure in the cell nucleus consisting of DNA and special proteins and providing hereditary materials. Chromosomes contain all or most of the genes of the organism.




From Greek: kryo = cooled, frozen. The cryopreservation is used to preserve the supernumerary embryos, which can then be used for further attempts. Also, spermatozoa can be cryopreserved.





1) A type of chromosomal aberration in which part of a chromosome is missing. 2) A type of genetic aberration in which a DNA molecule loses its part.



Induced by medicines decrease in endogenous output of hormones.




Ectopic pregnancy

A pathological pregnancy, in which implantation has taken place in any tissue other than the uterine wall.



The developing human individual from the time of merging of male and female genetic material in the fertilized egg. Since the 13the week of pregnancy the embryo becomes a fetus.


Embryo transfer

Placing a dividing fertilized oocyte (embryo) into the uterus with the intent to establish pregnancy.



A frequent cause of the infertility. A common medical condition where the tissue lining the uterus (endometrium) is found outside the uterus causing scar formation.



The abundantly supplied with blood membrane lining the inner surface of the uterus that gets renewed periodically. Embryo implants in endometrium.



From Latin: östrus = readiness to coupling, gen = to cause. Estrogens – female sex hormones produced in the ovaries and controlling the growth of the endometrium.




Fallopian tubes

Two very fine funnel-shaped tubes that guide spermatozoa to the oocyte and the fertilized oocyte – to the uterus.



The quality or state of being fertile.



The interaction of gametes.



A vesicle in the ovary that contains a developing egg surrounded by a covering of cells. Follicles mature in the ovaries.


Follicle puncture

Piercing a follicle with a very fine needle to obtain an oocyte.



(follicle stimulating hormone) A hormone produced by the hypophysis and stimulating the growth of immature follicles to maturation.





Sex cells (ovum and spermatozoon).



A functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits. A trait can be controlled by several genes.


GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)

A term composed of two roots of English and Greek origin: gonos = reproduction, trop = influence on, releasing = setting free. A hormone responsible for release of FSH and LH.


GnRH agonist

A medicine initially causing increase in FSH and LH secretion, then however it induces a profound hypogonodal effect achieved through downregulation.





Carriers of information between different organs in the body.


Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

From Latin: chorion = fetal integument, gonad = gonads, trop = to affect. A hormone produced in pregnancy which is medically used to cause ovulation. hCG is extracted from the urine of pregnant females or it is synthesized using biochemical technologies.


Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG)

From Latin: Menopausa = climax, gonad = sex gland hMG is produced from a sterile preparation of placental glucoprotein urine of post-menopausal women. hMG is used to stimulate ovaries.



The main endocrine gland, controlling functioning of other endocrine glands (gonads, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, etc.); sits in the small, bony cavity at the base of the brain.





Embedding of the embryo into the endometrium.


In-vitro-Fertilisation (IVF)

From Latin: in vitro = in a test glass, fertilisation = fertilization. IVF means fertilization outside the body.



If a regular sexual life doesn’t result in conceiving a child within a year, physicians call this infertility. However, this state isn’t unchangeable or unrecoverable.



Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

The term is composed of words with roots of Latin origin: intra =in, inside, cytoplasma = content of a cell, spermium = spermatozoon. An in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an oocyte using a finer microneedle.





The chromosomal characteristics of a cell; the complete set of chromosomes of a diploid cell; (normal human female karyotype -46, XX; male karyotype - 46, XY); the set of chromosomes specific to this particular organism.




Lutein phase

The time when yellow bodies (corpus luteum) produce progesterone. The lutein phase requires to be supported by administration of exogenous progesterone if there is deficiency in endogenous progesterone.


Luteinizing hormone (LH)

A hormone that triggers the onset of ovulation.





A relatively permanent change in hereditary material (DNA, gene, chromosome, genome).



A benign tumor consisting of muscle tissue and normally located in the uterus. Myomas may cause infertility or habitual miscarriage.




Non-obstructive azoospermia,

A condition in which spermatogenesis is blocked and no sperm cells are produced .


Having questions? Ask our doctors now!

A blog by Tone Bråten

A blog — to help you on your journey to become parents!

Our patients tell their stories

    Podcast about embryonic and maternal reasons of pregnancy losses and how we solve this
    Listen to the Podcast!
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